美前國務卿基辛格出席聽證會遭反戰者抗議圖

美前國務卿基辛格出席聽證會遭反戰者抗議(圖)

美前國務卿基辛格出席聽證會遭反戰者抗議(圖)

hvaa.com.hk

  □林昊(新華社供本報特稿)

  美國前國務卿亨利·基辛格29日出席美國國會一場聽證會,應邀就美國外交和國傢安全發表看法。然而,一些抗議者進入聽證會現場,指責基辛格擔任國務卿期間犯下“戰爭罪行”,惹惱瞭主持聽證會的參議員約翰·麥凱恩。

  稱IS是最直接挑戰之一

  作為美國國會參議院軍事委員會主席,身為共和黨人的麥凱恩一直對民主黨籍總統貝拉克·奧巴馬的外交政策持批判態度。他本月組織多場聽證會,討論奧巴馬政府的外交政策。

  在29日的聽證會上,基辛格應邀出席討論美國所面臨的全球和國傢安全挑戰。另外兩名前國務卿馬德琳·奧爾佈賴特和喬治·舒爾茨也出席瞭當天的聽證會。

  現年91歲的基辛格說,美國眼下所面臨挑戰的多樣性超過二戰以來任何一個時期,包括極端組織“伊斯蘭國”、烏克蘭局勢、伊朗核計劃等。在他看來,當今世界的復雜程度超過瞭冷戰時期。

  基辛格認為,美國現在面臨的最直接挑戰之一來自“伊斯蘭國”。“我們不能讓那演變為另一場我們不知道如何結束的戰爭。”他說。基辛格、奧爾佈賴特和舒爾茨均認為,美國應加強對極端分子的打擊力度。基辛格說,美國應該從二戰以後所參加的歷次戰爭中吸取教訓。“我們帶著極大的積極性開戰,隨後面臨巨大困難去結束戰爭。”

  抗議者舉著標語和手銬

  聽證會開始時,一個名為“粉色代碼”的組織的多名成員突然起身,呼喊口號指責基辛格。一名男子舉著標語,上面寫著“就戰爭罪逮捕基辛格”。一些抗議者打斷基辛格的發言,指責他擔任國務卿期間就越南戰爭等戰事犯下“戰爭罪”。幾名抗議者舉著標語和手銬一度試圖從身後接近基辛格。

  抗議者的做法惹怒瞭麥凱恩,他要求安保人員將抗議者驅逐出會場。他說,自己擔任國會參議院軍事委員會成員多年,從未見過如此情況。看到一名抗議者繼續呼喊口號,麥凱恩更為憤怒,指責對方是“人渣”。“你要麼閉嘴,要麼我讓人把你逮起來。”他說。

  國會警官金伯利·施奈德說,3名抗議者被驅逐出聽證會會場,但警方沒有逮捕任何人。

(原標題:91歲基辛格出席聽證會遭抗議)

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Insect cuisine suggested to solve food shortages

Insect cuisine suggested to solve food shortages

Insect cuisine suggested to solve food shortages

prototype.com.hk

Fried spiders?at a Taiwan food festival, Oct 18, 2014. [Photo/CFP]
Fried locusts, ant soup and other dishes made from insects could be the answer to the current global food crisis.

The scarcity of food and resources is an inevitable threat to human development that can be solved through eating bugs, Paul Vantomme, senior forestry officer of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, told China Daily on Tuesday.

Vantomme is visiting Huazhong Agricultural University in Wuhan from Tuesday to Friday.

“Edible insects have many advantages in that they grow quickly, emit less pollution and are high in nutrients,” he said, adding that many insects worldwide contain high quality protein, vitamins and amino acids required by humans, and can be used as animal feed or human food to alleviate the world’s food crises.

Vantomme said insects can be grown on organic waste, thus also reducing air and water pollution.

According to a report released by the FAO last year, crickets need six times less feed than cattle, four times less than sheep and half as much as pigs and chickens to produce the same amount of protein.

Yu Ziniu, a microbiology professor at Huazhong Agricultural University, agreed that most insects could become a main component of the human diet.

The FAO foresees that by 2030 more than 9 billion people will need to be fed globally, along with billions of animals raised annually for food and recreational purposes and as pets, putting great pressure on shrinking land and water resources.

The report said eating bugs may be one of many ways to address food and feed security.

It said insects supplement the diets of approximately 2 billion people and have always been a part of human diets, with more than 1,900 edible insect species consumed around the world.

The most commonly consumed insects are beetles, caterpillars, bees, wasps, ants, grasshoppers, locusts and crickets, according to the report.

Although it has been promoted by the UN and is also a traditional cuisine in some parts of China, such as Yunnan and Guangdong, mass consumption of insects still has a long way to go, Gao Xiwu, an entomologist at the Chinese Agricultural University, told China Daily in a previous interview.

“A clear and comprehensive food safety standard is needed to pave the way for promoting insects as food,” he said, adding that some insects are toxic with pesticide residue and bacteria, which might not be eradicated through cooking.

In contrast, Guo Huanchao, a manager at the Yunteng restaurant in Beijing, where bug cuisine is served, showed no concern about risks, saying that as long as the insects or worms are properly heated, either by boiling or frying, the dishes are hygienic.

The FAO report said there are no known cases of the transmission of diseases or parasites to humans from the consumption of insects when properly handled, but that the topic requires further research.

Contact the writers at [email protected] and [email protected]

 

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Green risks not as high as thought, report finds

Green risks not as high as thought, report finds

Green risks not as high as thought, report finds

prototype.com.hk

Public perceptions of increased risks and a lack of trust in government promises are behind many mass disturbances caused by environmental concerns, according to a report released on Tuesday.

Some environmental projects that have triggered heavy protests are not as dangerous as perceived by the public, with some having a very low risk, the report by non-governmental organization Friends of Nature said.

The annual report on China’s environmental development for 2014 released by the environmental protection organization and Social Sciences Academic Press illustrates severe challenges.

It is the ninth year that the organization has released the report.

Zeng Fanxu, an associate professor at Tsinghua School of Journalism and Communication, said environmental risks in China are sometimes exaggerated through the spreading of information by the media, opinion leaders and some experts.

A lack of public trust in local governments also served to exaggerate the risks attached to some projects.

On Saturday, construction of a garbage incinerator in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, sparked protests. Police vehicles were overturned and torched by demonstrators, and police officers were attacked.

Fifty-three people have been detained, police said on Monday.

It was not the first time that waste incineration plants have sparked protests over concerns about possible health and environmental hazards.

Work on an incineration plant in Beijing was suspended in 2011 after strong opposition from residents. In March, a protest against a paraxylene project in Maoming, Guangdong province, turned violent.

Environmental pollution was the main reason for large-scale mass disturbances, with half of the cases triggered by concerns about contamination, according to the Annual Report on China’s Rule of Law for 2014.

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男子搶車並劫持兩幼童不聽勸阻遭警方擊斃

男子搶車並劫持兩幼童不聽勸阻遭警方擊斃

男子搶車並劫持兩幼童不聽勸阻遭警方擊斃

http://www.aristle-gifted.com

  中新網3月24日電 據美媒23日報道,美國紐約州一名21歲的男子偷瞭一輛汽車,後座上有2個孩子。由於不聽警方勸阻,這名企圖帶著孩子逃跑的嫌犯遭到擊斃。

  報道稱,該男子名為佈朗,他在商場外偷瞭一對夫婦的汽車,後座的孩子分別為4歲和6歲。那對夫婦對著男子大喊,讓他停下。

  佈朗準備駕車帶著2個孩子逃跑時,一名警察對他開瞭一槍,然後打開車門,試圖將他拉下車,但遭到瞭反抗。那名警察再次使用高壓眩暈槍,但無法制止佈朗逃跑,於是該警察又開瞭一槍。

  美國警方稱,佈朗當時沒有武器。他被救護車送往附近醫院,在手術過程中死亡。當時執勤的警察沒有受傷。

(原標題:男子搶車並劫持兩幼童 因不聽勸阻遭警方擊斃)

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奧巴馬美古關系未到領導人互訪階段

奧巴馬:美古關系未到領導人互訪階段

奧巴馬:美古關系未到領導人互訪階段

hvaa.com.hk

  新華網華盛頓12月19日電(記者易愛軍 周而捷)美國總統奧巴馬19日表示,盡管美國和古巴已經啟動關系正常化進程,但還未達到他與古巴國務委員會主席兼部長會議主席勞爾·卡斯特羅可能互訪的階段。

  奧巴馬當天在白宮舉行的年末新聞發佈會上說,他不知道今後幾年美古關系將如何發展,但他本人還相當年輕,因此有生之年應該有機會訪問古巴。

  奧巴馬表示,美古領導人同時宣佈啟動兩國關系正常化進程沒有先例。雖然不能排除今後兩年古巴會在內政或外交上采取讓美國“極度不安”的行動,但關系正常化給予美國向古巴政府施加影響的“更大機遇”。

  奧巴馬和勞爾·卡斯特羅17日分別發表講話,宣佈啟動兩國關系正常化進程。當天,美國和古巴分別采取瞭一系列改善關系的舉措。其中,古巴釋放瞭已被監禁5年的美國承包商艾倫·格羅斯和另一名被監禁近20年的美國間諜,美國則釋放瞭已被關押15年的3名古巴間諜。

  1959年古巴革命勝利後,美國政府一直對古巴采取敵視態度。1961年美國雇傭軍入侵古巴失敗後,美國和古巴斷絕瞭外交關系。1962年,時任美國總統約翰·肯尼迪簽署法令,正式宣佈對古巴實施經濟、金融封鎖和貿易禁運。

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男子為籌錢上網夜盜農傢殺害戶主夫婦圖

男子為籌錢上網夜盜農傢殺害戶主夫婦(圖)

男子為籌錢上網夜盜農傢殺害戶主夫婦(圖)

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  本報記者王功尚 通訊員江廣 郜志勇 王禹

  3日上午,利川市建南鎮一對殘疾人夫婦被人發現在傢裡遇害,其子身受重傷,當地民警奮戰55小時成功抓獲嫌犯。昨日,利川市警方通報稱:嫌犯為鄰村21歲青年周某,其作案動機僅是為瞭“弄點上網錢”。

  殘疾夫妻遭人殺害

  3日一早,恩施州利川市建南鎮水田壩村10組的一名女孩到鄰居傢串門,屋內的情形卻讓她驚呆瞭:蔣富、周慧夫妻和其子蔣宇(均為化名)倒在血泊中。當地民警接警後火速趕往案發現場。

  民警趕到時,蔣富與周慧已氣息全無,他們的兒子蔣宇受傷嚴重。民警立即將蔣宇送往利川市人民醫院搶救。利川市公安局接報後,調集百餘警力全力查找嫌犯。

  據村民們反映,蔣富腿有殘疾,周慧曾患白內障有眼疾,傢庭並不富裕,現居住的新房是親友借錢剛修的,其傢中雖種有藥材黃連,但今年賣得的1.2萬元,還賬後所剩無幾。夫妻倆平素為人忠厚老實,從不與人結怨。

  民警勘察現場發現,兩名死者是在睡覺後被人用鈍器重擊致亡的,傢中有明顯翻動的痕跡,窗臺上和頂樓平臺分別有一枚可疑的腳印和帶著血跡的手套。警方分析,嫌犯的作案目的可能是圖財,且是翻墻從屋頂入室,作案完後又從屋頂逃離現場。

  “黃色雞冠頭”並非嫌犯

  3日19時許,經醫院搶救,幸存者蔣宇脫離瞭生命危險。他告訴民警,2日晚,他看完電視後就上床睡覺,但一直沒有睡著。後來,他看到有三人偷偷進入他傢臥室尋找錢財,隨後持兇器擊打瞭他們三人。三人中有一人的頭發為“黃色雞冠頭”。

  而民警在走訪時也發現,2日晚,確有4名青年在蔣傢後山的一條支路口徘徊,其中一人頭發為“黃色雞冠頭”。兩條線索相符,專案組迅速指示辦案民警,重點圍繞“1日以來出現的兩人以上青年群體”和“黃色雞冠頭”展開摸排。

  辦案民警經過一晝夜的細致摸排,終於找到瞭“黃色雞冠頭”及其同伴。但是,視頻調查組隨後發現,在可能的案發時間段內,有清晰的視頻監控資料可以確定,他們當時在距離案發現場很遠的一處集鎮上,沒有作案時間。此後,警方找到的30多名可疑人員均被一一排除嫌疑。

  4日19時許,警方再次召開瞭案情分析會,認為案發當晚,蔣宇處在睡夢中,且無燈光的情況下,是無法看清嫌犯作案經過的,且其頭部受到過重擊,其提供的線索可能不可靠。而嫌犯熟悉蔣傢房屋結構和周邊環境,很可能是熟人作案。

  警方隨即調整偵查方向,針對熟悉蔣傢的人,以及近段時間接觸過蔣富的人展開偵查。

  兇手潛逃55小時落網

  5日16時許,在民警摸排走訪瞭100餘名可疑人員後,嫌犯終於浮出水面。

  經調查,與水田壩村相鄰的紅板雲村21歲的周某,一個多月前曾到蔣傢做過泥瓦工,十分熟悉蔣傢的情況,其經濟條件較差,喜歡上網玩遊戲。摸排民警第一次與周某接觸時,周某稱案發時段他一直在網吧上網,然而,有目擊者和上網記錄證實,案發時段他根本不在網吧。同時,道路監控視頻顯示,案發前,他已經離開網吧,此後,他騎摩托車向水田壩方向駛去。

  警方綜合掌握的所有線索,迅速安排民警對周某實施抓捕。兩個小時後,周某在傢中被抓獲。警方通過DNA比對,確認周某就是嫌犯。

  經審,周某交代瞭其作案的動機和過程:2日,連續在謀道集鎮上瞭幾天網的周某因缺錢,想偷點錢用來上網。當周某走到建南鎮水田壩村時,他突然想到瞭剛建的蔣富傢,自己曾在他傢做過泥瓦工,十分熟悉房屋內部結構和周圍的環境,且蔣傢夫妻都有殘疾,幾乎沒有抵抗能力。於是,周某決定到蔣傢盜竊財物。

  當晚10時許,周某從屋後的土坎翻至屋頂平臺,等蔣某及其傢人睡熟後,偷偷潛入房屋內尋找財物,為防止留下指紋,周某還特意戴上一雙白色線織手套。進入房屋內,周某從一房間內拿瞭一個手電筒用於照明,並找來一把羊角錘用於撬鎖。但搜尋幾個房間後,周某沒有發現任何財物,最後進入臥室盜竊。

  周某想到,一旦驚醒蔣某夫妻,他們便會認出自己,為防止暴露身份,他決定先把蔣某夫妻兩人打死之後再盜竊財物。於是,周某關掉手電,悄悄地潛入房間,舉起羊角錘砸向睡夢中的一傢三口……周某行兇後,便在臥室內翻找財物,但一無所獲,遂按原路逃離瞭現場。

  目前,蔣宇仍在醫院接受治療,周某已被刑拘。

(原標題:泥瓦工夜盜農傢殺害戶主夫婦)

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Govt cleans up gambling in mobile apps

Govt cleans up gambling in mobile apps

Govt cleans up gambling in mobile apps

prototype.com.hk

China is expected to see a more family-friendly mobile app market after the top cultural authority’s recent crackdown on gambling-related content.

As many as 27 mobile game publishing platforms and app-store operators, including Baidu App and Android Market, were told late last year by the Ministry of Culture to rectify games that contain information advocating gambling or that allow lottery-style in-app purchases. Their deadline was the end of 2013.

Lottery-style in-app purchases within a game increase a player’s chances of winning or receiving a reward. This type of purchase originated in Japan and is known as “Kompu Gacha”. Due to the random nature of lotteries and the uncertainty of rewards, the feature can be seen as promoting gambling.

Twenty companies have thus far submitted reports to the ministry about corrections they have made in their apps or games, deleted sensitive information that pertains to gambling and canceled lottery-style in-app purchasing.

The seven other companies failed to make corrections by the year-end deadline and have received administrative penalties.

Two of the delinquent companies, based in Shanghai, were held responsible for irregularities, such as having lottery-style in-app purchases in mobile games Against War and Fantasy Monster, and were fined 60,000 yuan ($9,755) and 130,000 yuan.

Yu Yi, a game analyst formerly with Analysys International, said online games, including mobile games, need correction.

“Right now, with the rapid growth of the market, there is a need to combat the growth of gambling in mobile games and related products,” said Yu. “While game publishers and app-store operators can be subject to the ministry’s supervision, the core problem lies with video game developers.”

Yu said the government’s policy is to remove and regulate games that have obvious gambling elements. He added that regulations won’t have a major effect on the overall market, but its impact on lottery-style in-app purchasing will be significant.

Zhang Liang, a managing director at Beijing-based mobile solutions company PapayaMobile, said China’s mobile game operators often imitate their Japanese counterparts, specifically in adding gambling-related content into games. But with the ban in place, he said, some in the industry are already making adjustments. He added that all mobile game operators will soon follow suit.

“But gambling-related content is important to how mobile games profit,” Zhang said. “So while the industry is removing the more obvious elements of gambling, the nature of the games will remain unchanged.”

According to the ministry, the market for mobile games reached 13.8 billion yuan in revenue last year, a year-on-year increase of 112.6 percent. The country now has 170 million users of offline mobile games and 120 million of online games.

Li Gang, an official with the ministry, said the scale of the market is making it increasingly hard for the ministry to supervise it.

Li said challenges largely result from the short life cycle of products, intertwining responsibilities between developers, operators and publishing platforms, and complications in obtaining evidence about illegal lottery-style in-app purchases.

Despite the obstacles, the ministry is ready to take further actions to help regulate the market, which will include releasing a manual detailing irregularities in in-app purchases and updating its blacklist of companies found advocating gambling and vulgar content, he said.

Contact the writers at [email protected] and [email protected]

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韓漁民中國漁船非法捕撈致嚴重損失 政府應賠

韓漁民:中國漁船非法捕撈致嚴重損失 政府應賠

韓漁民:中國漁船非法捕撈致嚴重損失 政府應賠

hvaa.com.hk

  【環球網綜合報道】據韓國nocut新聞網11月24日消息,韓國西海五島漁民及其傢屬將舉行海上示威,就中國漁船“非法捕撈”給他們帶來的慘重損失要求韓國政府出臺措施並予以補償。

  “西海五島中國漁船非法作業政策委員會”方面24日表示,將於26日舉行海上示威,敦促政府能賠償因中國漁船“非法捕撈”而造成的損失,並出臺相關政策防止此類事件再次發生。他們在當天發表的聲明中指出,“支持政府出臺的《中國漁船非法作業應對方案》,但中國漁船‘非法捕撈’給韓國漁民帶來的巨大損失政府卻隻字未提。我們對此感到非常失望”。

  據報道,該政策委員會將於26日調集“西海五島”中白翎島、大青島和小青島的全部漁船,並在大青島集合,之後向首爾進發,要求韓國政府解決漁民們的生計問題。

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世界多國競相研發第六代戰鬥機 無人機成熱門

世界多國競相研發第六代戰鬥機 無人機成熱門

世界多國競相研發第六代戰鬥機 無人機成熱門

hvaa.com.hk

  王鵬 陳晨《中國青年報》

  11月14日,美國《國傢利益》雜志網站刊文表示,鑒於中國在珠海航展上展示瞭最新的殲-31隱身戰鬥機,五角大樓和國防工業部門的官員擔心,中國新式隱身戰機未來可能會在戰時匹敵美國戰機。為瞭應對挑戰,五角大樓需要繼續購買F-35並開始開發未來戰機,以反制興起的威脅。而這裡所指的未來戰機,就是美國正在研發的第六代戰鬥機。

  強國紛紛出手搶占制高點

  實際上,進入21世紀之後,以美國為首的航空工業大國、強國一直在致力於研究和開發第六代戰鬥機,以搶占未來空中戰場的制高點。

  美國是動手最早,也是投入最多的國傢。為保持絕對領先的空中優勢,早在2007年10月,美國空軍就率先對第六代戰鬥機的具體需求展開研究。緊接著,美國海軍也在“下一代空中優勢”計劃框架下,對海軍型第六代戰鬥機的能力需求進行瞭評估。2010年4月,美國空軍設立第六代戰鬥機辦公室,之後美國海軍與空軍分別發佈瞭第六代戰鬥機“能力需求信息征詢書”,標志著美國第六代戰鬥機的概念設計工作正式啟動。

  2008年1月,波音公司推出瞭F/A-XX第六代戰鬥機概念方案。2012年1月,洛克希德·馬丁公司也公佈瞭第六代戰鬥機新概念,它們都向世人展示瞭未來戰鬥機的雛形。近年來,美軍在竭力縮小軍費開支的情況下,仍然保持對第六代戰鬥機研究的持續性投入。2013年,美國海軍和空軍展開瞭名為F/A-XX和F-X的下一代戰鬥機需求定義工作。今年3月下旬,美國空軍和國防部高級研究計劃局在預研經費投入結束的情況下,又為第六代戰鬥機項目申請瞭超過1500萬美元的研究經費。美軍一系列舉動充分表明瞭其要奪占未來航空技術優勢的堅定決心。

  俄羅斯雖然在第五代戰鬥機的研發與部署上落後於美國,但是卻沒有忘記啟動第六代戰鬥機的研究工作。今年10月16日,俄羅斯先期研究基金會總經理安德烈·格裡戈耶夫在“開放式創新”論壇上宣稱,俄羅斯科學傢已經開始研發采用復合材料制造的第六代戰鬥機。他向記者表示,俄羅斯將重點突破材料和發動機這兩個難題,以為制造第六代戰鬥機打好基礎。按照俄羅斯聯合飛機制造公司的說法,第一種俄羅斯第六代戰鬥機將於12年後開始研制。而該公司航空部經理烏拉季米爾·米哈伊洛夫則稱,最快可能會在2020年下半年開始研制。俄羅斯空軍也表示,雖然在第六代戰鬥機的定位與認識上還未達成廣泛的共識,但是主要方向已經基本明確,相關項目也已經啟動。

  日本作為亞洲的航空強國,在第六代戰鬥機的研發上也不甘落後。日本《產經新聞》11月5日刊文宣稱,日本首架國產隱身戰機的樣機——先進技術驗證機ATD-X“心神”將於2015年1月進行試飛。雖然該型驗證機當前是為瞭解決日本第五代戰鬥機的問題。但是,日本卻有意向在這一驗證機的技術基礎上發展第六代戰鬥機F-3,並計劃於2035年服役,這與美國在2030年前開發第六代戰鬥機的計劃基本同步。

  實際上,日本對第六代戰鬥機研發的動機出於內外兩方面的因素。外部因素是為瞭抗衡中俄在先進戰鬥機研發上的投入。內部因素則是為瞭減少對美國航空技術的依賴,增強這一領域的自主能力,以保護本國航空工業。日本防衛省表示,開發國產戰鬥機將創造出4萬億日元的新產業,帶來8.3萬億日元的經濟效益,創造24萬個就業崗位。同時,為瞭體現技術思想的獨立性,日本對第六代戰鬥機的定義也與西方的多“超”標準不同,而是別出心裁地定義為3F,即“首先發現、首先攻擊、首先摧毀”。並提出瞭以“信息化、智能化、敏捷性”為代表的“i3”第六代戰鬥機的日本概念。

  具備“六超”特性的第六代戰鬥機

  雖然各國對第六代戰鬥機的定位有所不同,但是以當前的技術發展為基礎,第六代戰鬥機的基本技術特征已經越來越清晰。

  為瞭與之前的五代戰鬥機劃分出明顯的界限,軍事專傢王長勤將第六代戰鬥機的特性總結為“六超”:一是超扁平外形,即采用全翼身融合、大升阻比和無垂尾設計,使飛機在各種高度、各種姿態下都能保持很好的隱身性能;二是超聲速巡航,即采用更新一代的發動機,使飛機既能進行亞聲速巡航飛行,又能進行3馬赫~6馬赫的超聲速飛行;三是超常規機動,即采用超常規機動佈局、矢量推力發動機和智能化飛行控制系統,使飛機能夠實施用於滿足各種戰術要求的高速機動;四是超遠程打擊,即飛機具備長航時飛行能力,並能夠掛載動能、電磁和激光等各類新概念武器實施遠距離精確打擊;五是超維度物聯,即采取物聯網技術,使飛機成為陸海空天電網多維空間作戰體系中的一個在線用戶;六是超域界控制,即采用多種指控模式使有人機與有人機、有人機與無人機,乃至無人機與無人機之間形成一個完整的空戰群落。

  有專傢表示,由於存在一定的技術矛盾,要在一種飛機平臺上全部實現“六超”特性的難度較大。因此,未來的第六代戰鬥機可能出現高低不同檔次的多款型號,甚至會出現有人駕駛與無人駕駛的雙重選項。

  然而,第六代戰鬥機要實現這“六超”特性,需要有強大的技術基礎作支撐。2013年12月30日,美國《航空與航天技術周刊》刊文展望瞭未來航空航天領域的9項國防技術關註重點。其中,有人機與無人機混合編隊、變循環發動機等都屬於與第六代戰鬥機特性直接相關的技術基礎。

  今年2月24日,美國國防部長哈格爾在宣佈五角大樓2015財年預算要求時,明確提出要投資10億美元用於空軍研發新型發動機技術。空軍首席科學傢邁卡·恩茲利透露,這項投資將主要用在空軍的“自適應發動機技術開發”項目上,旨在研制能夠提升燃料利用率的第六代戰鬥機發動機。

  此外,人工智能也將是第六代戰鬥機應用的核心技術之一。美國空軍和海軍的工程師希望能夠借助人工智能技術使第六代戰鬥機擁有類似人類皮膚的先進傳感器,以敏銳感知周圍環境,可對風速、氣溫、機體的疲勞程度進行檢測。同時,還可以對目標進行自主分析,在無需人工介入的情況下,完成對威脅較大目標的攻擊選擇。

  有人機與無人機的搭配比例將出現革命性變化

  從根本上來講,第六代戰鬥機的諸多先進性能改變的不僅僅是空中平臺本身,而是未來空中力量的面貌,尤其是空中力量的作戰形態和結構組成。

  在作戰形態上,以第六代戰鬥機為主體的空中力量將實現全新概念的跨域作戰。作為一種理念,跨域作戰可以說是空中力量的一個獨特優勢。當早期航空兵開始從空中對陸戰場的地面目標和海戰場的水面目標實施打擊時,就被認為是最早形式的跨域作戰。然而,第六代戰鬥機的全新技術特性賦予瞭跨域作戰更為豐富的內涵和更廣闊的空間。從機動的角度看,隨著第六代戰鬥機超機動性能的實現,空與天的界限被消弭瞭,飛行員夢寐以求的高中低空全高度作戰和空天跨域機動將成為現實。從作戰效果的角度看,隨著第六代戰鬥機機載信息系統功能的跨越式提升,將使空中力量傳統火力打擊的跨域延伸為硬摧毀和軟殺傷綜合毀傷效果的跨域。

  在結構組成上,第六代戰鬥機“六超”特性的發揮與運用將改變空中力量的構成方式。主要體現在有人機與無人機的搭配比例將出現革命性的變化,即無人機在空中力量中所占的比重和使用頻率將大幅增加。這一點在美軍中體現尤為明顯,早在2011年,美國空軍MQ-1“捕食者”無人機的飛行時數就已經位居所有軍機的第二位。美軍為此展開瞭極具前瞻性的研究與探索。2013年10月,美國空軍成功將退役的F-16戰鬥機改裝為QF-16無人機,並完成瞭有人駕駛F-16與無人駕駛QF-16的編隊飛行試驗。今年8月17日,美國海軍在“羅斯福”號核動力航母上完成瞭一架X-47B艦載無人機與兩架F/A-18“大黃蜂”戰鬥機進行的首輪合作式飛行演示驗證。人們從這些實驗中已經看出瞭未來以第六代戰鬥機為主體的空中作戰體系中,有人機與無人機實施“同進同退”編隊作戰的端倪。

  雖然,當前世界各國對第六代戰鬥機的研發還大都處於概念構想、規劃設計和技術基礎研究的階段,尤其是相當一些國傢出於國際政治和安全環境因素考慮得較多。但不可否認的是,現在對第六代戰鬥機的定義基本體現瞭未來空中主戰平臺的發展方向,它給空中力量的建設與運用帶來的將是巨大的、全方位的變革。

  (作者單位:空軍工程大學 94778部隊)

(原標題:世界多國競相研發第六代戰鬥機)

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Xi urges Uzbek investment boost

Xi urges Uzbek investment boost

Xi urges Uzbek investment boost

prototype.com.hk

The Guard of Honor of the People’s Liberation Army and the Military Band of the PLA, wearing a new type of uniform, perform at the welcoming ceremony attended by President Xi Jinping and visiting Uzbek President Islam Karimov at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing on Tuesday. Wu Zhiyi / China Daily

Top leaders from China and Uzbekistan mapped out the future of the countries’ relationship on Tuesday by signing a joint declaration, ratifying a five-year plan and witnessing the sealing of seven agreements.

The agreements covered various areas including economic and technical cooperation, energy and financing.

The bilateral relationship is the best in its history and the newly inked documents will “lay a foundation” for the sides to deepen cooperation, President Xi Jinping told Uzbek President Islam Karimov in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing.

Xi called for both sides to boost trade and investment, saying that China encourages its enterprises to increase investment and participate in industrial park construction in Uzbekistan.

The countries should work together for the construction of the Silk Road Economic Belt, and strengthen cooperation in energy, financing, agriculture and transportation, Xi said.

The president highlighted the construction of Line D of the China-Central Asia natural gas pipeline and the China-Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan railway project. A gas pipeline has already linked the countries.

Calling China a “most reliable partner”, Karimov said Uzbekistan would learn from China’s successful experience in development. The Uzbek side welcomes Chinese investment and would like to participate in Beijing’s proposals for the Silk Road Economic Belt and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, he said.

Karimov received a red-carpet reception before his second meeting with Xi this year. He attended the fourth summit of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia in Shanghai in May.

Xi also visited Uzbekistan in September in his first state trip to Central Asia since taking office in 2013.

Cheng Guoping, vice-minister of the Foreign Ministry, called the latest visit “a successful one” on Tuesday, saying a sound relationship between China and Uzbekistan is helpful to peace and stability in Central Asia.

Karimov is scheduled to meet Premier Li Keqiang and visit Xi’an, Shaanxi province, on Wednesday, Cheng said.

China is Uzbekistan’s second-largest trading partner and its biggest investing country. Two-way trade volume reached $2.88 billion in 2012, a year-on-year surge of 32.8 percent.

Observers said the two economies are highly complementary. Uzbekistan boasts rich oil, gas and mineral resources, while China has a technological edge in energy, transportation, telecommunication, agriculture, mechanical equipment, light industry and household appliances.

Cooperation in non-energy sectors has also improved recently. The Pengsheng industrial park in Uzbekistan, the biggest non-energy cooperation project between the countries, received investments of more than $43 million by September.

The leaders also pledged on Tuesday to strengthen cooperation in fighting terrorism and extremism. China has been hit by a slew of terrorism attacks this year.

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